A good example of this is the Cambridge Football Rules, established in 1848 by a committee of students. The Oxford rules did not completely solve the problem and it was the formation of governing bodies, beginning with the formation of the FA (Football Association) in 1863, that eventually established the rational sport. Not only did the new governing bodies govern and control their own sports in Britain, but because of the status of the British Empire, many of our governing bodies became the world`s sports regulators. Examples include the Lawn Tennis Association and the Royal and Ancient Club (golf). The competitions created by these two bodies (Wimbledon and the Open Championship) have become world-famous events. In 1864, the Clarendon Report examined education in public schools and greatly recognized the character-building value of the games played in these schools, such as leadership, loyalty, and teamwork. This principle of character formation of health and fitness is called athletics, the physical values of sport. It is the pursuit of physical exertion that develops masculinity and robustness. Athletics included moral integrity and appreciation of the value of healthy exercise and fitness, discipline of regulated activity, and discipline of physical preparation.
Popular recreation eventually evolved into what we know today as modern sport. The steps taken to move from this unstructured, casual hobby to a highly organized and competitive modern sport are called rationalization. Streamlined sport is practiced regularly, it has elaborate rules, there are rules for etiquette and sportsmanship. Often it is competency-based with a highly structured organization in terms of boundaries, teams, and timing. It is widely accepted that English public schools are the birthplace of modern sport. In 1810, Sydney Smith described the public schools as “a place of equipped education, to which the sons of the lords turn in considerable numbers and where they live between eight and nine to eighteen years.” It wasn`t until the 20th century that public schools were introduced. Therefore, sport plays a crucial role in both education systems. The development of machines in factories meant that the working day was no longer determined by the seasons, but by “machine time”, which created more structure, with workers expected to work from “dusk to sunrise” six days a week. Originally, the way of life of the working class was harsh with limited free time, low wages and poor working conditions. In fact, five- and six-year-olds worked in factories and with few labor laws, there were a lot of serious injuries or deaths.
With high levels of pollution and poor cramped living conditions, resulting in diseases and such a harsh lack of health, hygiene and work, there was little energy for exercise. 14 When participation in sport was again a realistic possibility for ordinary people, these sports were now associated with moral values and good breeding, and had lost all their former qualities as “MOBs”. Watch this next video clip and see if you can answer the next question. With the development of transport, especially the rail network, teams were able to travel longer distances to play matches. As less time was needed to continue travelling, this allowed for a national base for the competition; Spectators could also watch the teams and the games became regular. This led to the development of national governing bodies (NGOs) of universities such as Oxford and Cambridge, which regulated the rules, competitions and administration of sport in the UK. Between 1860 and 1900, many National Sports Federations (NBAs) were formed in England; This is due to the “melting pot” of games in public schools and universities, which means that hybrid games have been developed. Public schools and universities began to compete with each other in “college” games, and when players were trained, rules could be written and sports codified.
Increased fixtures required more uniforms to distinguish teams, manage leagues, and enforce standardized rules; The Cambridge Football Rules of 1848 are an example of this. As the “old boys” took positions in society, the number of sports clubs competing increased. Due to the development of trafficking, the “old boys” brought the sport to different parts of the world/country, which led to competitions at the international/national level. The increasing level of competition has led to more competitions and tournaments and a greater need to check competitors and clubs in order to maintain amateur code. As the working class had neither the power nor the skills to be administrators, educated “old boys” who held influential positions in society and sports clubs were involved in the formation of NGBs such as the Football Association in 1863. As these “old people” had a lot of free time to fill and were used to being leaders in society, they had the appropriate skills to be administrators in NGOs. It also allowed the upper class to control the free time of the working class and give sport moral direction. Codification is the term used to describe the formal writing and recording of the rules of a sport. Im frühen 19.
In the nineteenth century, the education system was concentrated in a handful of public schools. These schools were fee-paying institutions, which made them elitist, something that only the upper and middle classes could afford. Trustees controlled schools and sought to promote them through activities such as athletic achievements. The schools were also “equipped,” meaning they received large donations, including money and goods, allowing schools to invest in the site and develop sophisticated facilities. 6 In order for a truly national sports offer to flourish, a certain degree of uniformity of both rules and playing area was necessary.